396 HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION They presuppose passive pupils busy absorbing what the teacher has prepared for them. There is little chance to learn by doing, because it is difficult for children at desks to do anything but listen. Indeed, it would be distinctly inconvenient if they were to attempt to do anything, because children individualize them- selves the moment they act. All the arrangements of the ordinary school have been made with a view to dealing with children in masses and not as individuals. The immediate effect is a paralysis of intellectual initiative, but the moral failure goes even deeper. Moral education, or as it is more properly called, social education, is only got by participation in the common aims and needs of some society, and there is little in the learning that is done in school to organize the pupils as a social unit. " In the school- room, the motive and cement of social organization are alike wanting. Upon the ethical side, the tragic weakness of the present school is that it endeavours to prepare future members of the social order in a medium in which the conditions of the social spirit are eminently wanting." * What the new times demand is a school capable of training its scholars for complete living in the social world of to-day. Pro- fessor Dewey's experimental school aimed at realizing this ideal. Four main problems, in particular, seemed to him and to the teachers associated with him at the time of its institution to press for solution: *' (i) What can be done to bring the school into closer relation with the home and neighbourhood life ? (2) What can be done in the way of introducing subject-matter in history and science and art that shall have a positive value and real significance in the child's own life ? (3) How can instruction in reading, writing and arithmetic, the formal subjects, be carried on with everyday experience and occupation as the background, and made interesting by relating them to other studies of more inherent content? (4) How can adequate attention be paid to individual powers and needs ? " f JdfeJfe^P^-XteKBtfpmd^in,Aejcfeal hQma,,%3ifidel forjjis ideal^ scJtooL In such a home, he points out, where the parent is intelligent enough'to recognize what is best for the child and is able to supply what is needed, we find the ctiild learning tkrpugh the social converse and constitution of the family. By joining in the daily conversations and taking his part in the * School and Soctey* P- *&.